Tuesday, December 21, 2010


Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha or gurkha (Nepali: गोर्खा), are people from Nepal they were from Gorkha of ancient nepal who take their name from the 8th century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath.His disciple Bappa Rawal, born Prince Kalbhoj/Prince Shailadhish, founded the house of Mewar, Rajasthan (Rajputana). Later descendants of Bappa Rawal moved further east to found the house of Gorkha, which in turn founded the Kingdom of Nepal. Gorkha District is one of the 75 districts of modern Nepal.
Gurkhas are best known for their history of bravery and strength in the Nepal's  and the british army's brigade of Gurkhas. The Gurkhas were designated by British officials as a "Martial Race". "Martial Race" was a designation created by officials of British India to describe "races" (peoples) that were thought to be naturally warlike and aggressive in battle, and to possess qualities of courage, loyalty, self sufficiency, physical strength, resilience, orderliness, the ability to work hard for long periods of time, fighting tenacity and military strategy. The British recruited heavily from these Martial Races for service in the British Indian Army

The Thakuri Dynastey

After Aramudi, many Thakuri kings ruled over the country up to the middle of the 12th century A.D Raghv Dev is said to have founded a ruling dynasty in October, 869 A.D., when the Lichchhavi rule came to an end. To commemorate this important event, Raghv Dev started the 'Nepal Era' which began form 20th October, 869 A.D. After Amshuverma, the Thakuris had lost power and they could regain it only in 869 A.D. The importance of this for the Thakuris must have been even greater because during Amshuverma's time they were only regents, but they became all powerful as the sovereign in 896 A.D. So, this historical event- replacing the Lichchhavis by the Thakuri rulers signified the start of a new era as 'Nepal Era'.
However, historians are of different opinions about the origin of the Nepal era. Some writers are of the opinion that Nepalese were superstitious. They dropped the unlucky number 8 of the Saka Era 801 and thus, they retained number 1 as the new Nepali Era. Some writers suggest that a new era was started in 869 A.D. to mark the occasion of Nepal becoming independent of Tibet. But our history does not agree with this view as Nepal was never under the Tibetan rule. There are also some other writers who say that there was a merchant called Sakhwal in Kathmandu during the reign of Ananda Malla. By his cunning tricks he changed the sand into gold and paid off all the debts of the people of Kathmandu. He then introduced a new era called 'Nepal Sambat' to commemorate this important event. But the reign of Ananda Malla comes three hundred years later, so this view also cannot be accepted.
All these opinions, except that about Raghav Dev, lack historical as well as logical proof. So, it can be concluded that the Nepal Era was started in 869 A.D., during the reign of Raghav Dev to commemorate the occasion of the Thakuri dynasty coming into power and the end of the Lichchhavi dynasty.

Monday, December 20, 2010

three kingdom of nepal

After 1482, a crucial date in Nepalese history, the kingdom became divided. At first, the six sons of Yakshamalla attempted to reign collegially, in their grandfathers' pattern. Ratnamalla was the first to rebel against this system of joint rule, seizing Kathmandu in 1484 and ruling there alone until his death in 1520. Rayamalla, the eldest brother, ruled Bhadgaon with the other brothers until his death, when the crown there passed into the hands of his descendants. Banepa broke away under Ramamalla until its reincorporation into the Bhadgaon kingdom in 1649. Patan remained aloof, dominated by factions of its local nobility, until Sivasimhamalla, a descendant of Ratnamalla, conquered it in 1597 and united it with Kathmandu. On his death, however, Kathmandu and Patan were given to different grandsons and again separated. The center of Nepal thus remained split into three competing kingdoms, roughly based on Bhadgaon, Kathmandu, and Patan. The influence of these petty kingdoms outside the valley varied over time. Bhadgaon extended its feeble power as far as the Dudh Kosi in the east, Kathmandu controlled areas to the north and as far west as Nuwakot, and Patan included territories to the south as far as Makwanpur. The relationships among the kingdoms within the valley became quite convoluted. Although all three ruling houses were related and periodically intermarried, their squabbles over miniscule territorial gains or ritual slights repeatedly led to warfare. The kings attended coronation rituals or marriages at each other's capitals and then plotted the downfalls of their relatives.

gopal dynasty

Ne Muni

Many historians and local traditions say that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself at the valley of Kathmandu during prehistoric times and that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place protected ("pala" in Sanskrit) by the sage "Ne". The etymology of the name Nepal means, "the country looked after by Ne".
He used to perform religious ceremonies at Teku, the confluence of the Bagmati and Bishnumati rivers. He is said by legend to have selected a pious cowherd to be the first of the many kings of the Gopala Dynasty. These rulers are said to have ruled Nepal for over 500 years. He selected Bhuktaman to be the first king in the line of the Gopal (Cowherd) Dynasty. The Gopal dynasty ruled for 621 years. Yakshya Gupta was the last king of this dynasty. However,this mythology can be challenged as no such name as Ne exists in Nepali or other Sanskrit derived languages.
According to Skanda Purana, a rishi called "Ne" or "Nemuni" used to live in Himalaya. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a saint and a protector. He is said to have practiced penance at the Bagmati and Kesavati rivers and to have taught his doctrines there too.

Soma Dynasty

Soma Dynasty
The Soma dynasty had established a principality in the west while the Kirati kings were ruling over the Nepal valley. The Soma dynasty kings attacked Nepal several times during the region of Patuka, but they could not defeat him. The last Kirati King Gasti was comparatively weak, so he was defeated by Nimisha of the Soma dynasty. Thus, Nimisha became the first Soma dynasty king of Nepal in about 205 A.D. He built his palace in Godavari. It was from his time that the Godavari-Mela (fair) began to be held at Godavari, every twelve years. He also erected the four faced linga of Pashupatinath. He repaired the temple of Pashupatinath as well.
After Nimisha, Mitakshya, Kakaverma and Pashuprekshya Dev ruled over Nepal. Bhaskerverma was the fifth and last Soma dynasty king who ruled over Nepal during 280 to 305 A.D. It was he who led a military expedition and reached up to Rameswaram, the southern-most part of India. He gathered a vast treasure of wealth from this campaign. With this wealth he made a gold-plating roof on the temple of Pashupatinath and developed the economic condition of his kingdom. He filled Devapatan with his wealth and named it 'Swarnapuri'. He was childless, so he made Bhumi Verma, his heir, who was a Rajput Keshetriya of the Solar dynasty. Thus, the soma dynasty rule came to an end.

Kirats dynasty

The Kirats
The Kirats were the aborigines of north-eastern Himalayas. According to Baburam Acharya, they came to Nepal in about 700 B.C. and ruled over it. They were short and had robust bodies, broad checks, flat noses, thin whiskers, and dark eyes. They were well trained in the art of warfare, and were very skillful archers. They were the ancestors of the present day Kiratas: - Kulung, Thulung and Yellung. Yalamber, the first Kirati king of Nepal belonged to the Yellung clan.
Altogether, there were 29 kings of this dynasty who ruled over Nepal for about 1225 years. According to the chronicle (Bamsavali) of Kirkpatrick, Kiratas ruled over Nepal from about 900 B.C. to 300 A.D. On the basis of the Puranas and other ancient religious texts, it is presumed that the Kiratas ruled in Nepal after Gopal and Mahipal. The first king of the Kiratas was Yalamber, who defeated Bhuvan Singh, the last king of Ahir dynasty and established Kirat rule in Nepal. He extended his kingdom as far as the Tista river in the east and the Trishuli in the west. It is said that during the battle of Mahabharata, Yalamber went to witness the battle with a view to take the side of the loosing party. Lord Krishna, knowing the intention of Yalamber and the strength and unity of the Kiratas, thought that the war would unnecessarily be prolonged if Yalamber sided with the Kauravas. So, by a clever stroke of diplomacy, Lord Krishna cut off Yalamber's head.

Lichavi Dynasty

Lichavi Dynasty
The Lichavis are said to have migrated into Nepal from north India in around 250 A.D. The first Lichavi king of historical importance was Manadeva 1. Another important Lichavi monarch was Anshuverma who opened trade routes to Tibet. One of his daughters, Bhrikuti, who was married to Tibetan ruler Tsrong-tsong Gompo, was instrumental in spreading the Gospel of the Buddha in Tibet and China. Anshuverma has been referred to as a man of many talents in the accounts of the Chinese traveler Huen Tsang, who had visited India in the 7th century AD.
Narendradeval another Lichavi king, initiated friendly relations with China and his successors laid the foundations of friendship with India by entering into matrimonial alliances with the Indian royal families. The Lichchhavi rule spanned over a period of about 630 years, the last ruler being Jayakamadeva.